Word formation is the process or result of forming new words, which are derived from words or group of words with the same root. In other words, word formation is defined as the ways in which new words are made on the basis of other words or morphemes. New words may be added to the vocabulary of a language by derivational processes, but there’s also a variety of different ways such as compounding, coining, backformation, blending, acronymy and clipping.
1.Compounding is the process of joining two or more words into a single integrated word. Examples include: raincoat, football, desktop, fingerprints, bookcase etc.
2.Shortening (or backformation) is the process of creating new forms by removing affixes from the existing words. In other words, backformation is the opposite of derivation. Examples: act – action, gym – gymnasium, math – mathematics, dorm – dormitory, bike – bicycle, lab – laboratory.
3.The process of blending involves joining two words together by taking parts of the two words and combining the parts into a new whole. Usually the beginning of one word and the end of another are combined. Ex.:
smoke and fog – smog; breakfast and lunch – brunch; motor and hotel – motel; information and entertainment – infotainment;
4.Conversion is the word formation process where a word of one part of speech converts into another part of speech. There are many different types of conversion, for example:
a) noun to verb: email – to email; google – to google; bottle – to bottle; fool – to fool; host – to host;
b) verb to noun: to alert – alert; to attack – attack; to experience – experience; to cry – cry; to cover – cover;
c) adjective to verb: empty – to empty; green – to green;
d) verb to adjective: see – see through; stand up – stand up (comedian);
e) prepositions to noun: up, down – the ups and downs of life;
f) conjunction to noun: if, and, but – no ifs, ands or buts;