На снимката ще видите таблица с продължителните времена в английския език. Строеж, употреба и значение. За курсове по английски език си запазете час по телефона.
Тук на снимката ще видите обща таблица на простите времена в английския език. Техният строеж, употреба и значение. За курсове по английски език си запазете час по телефона.
Word formation is the process or result of forming new words, which are derived from words or group of words with the same root. In other words, word formation is defined as the ways in which new words are made on the basis of other words or morphemes. New words may be added to the vocabulary of a language by derivational processes, but there’s also a variety of different ways such as compounding, coining, backformation, blending, acronymy and clipping.
1.Compounding is the process of joining two or more words into a single integrated word. Examples include: raincoat, football, desktop, fingerprints, bookcase etc.
2.Shortening (or backformation) is the process of creating new forms by removing affixes from the existing words. In other words, backformation is the opposite of derivation. Examples: act – action, gym – gymnasium, math – mathematics, dorm – dormitory, bike – bicycle, lab – laboratory.
3.The process of blending involves joining two words together by taking parts of the two words and combining the parts into a new whole. Usually the beginning of one word and the end of another are combined. Ex.:
smoke and fog – smog; breakfast and lunch – brunch; motor and hotel – motel; information and entertainment – infotainment;
4.Conversion is the word formation process where a word of one part of speech converts into another part of speech. There are many different types of conversion, for example:
a) noun to verb: email – to email; google – to google; bottle – to bottle; fool – to fool; host – to host;
b) verb to noun: to alert – alert; to attack – attack; to experience – experience; to cry – cry; to cover – cover;
c) adjective to verb: empty – to empty; green – to green;
d) verb to adjective: see – see through; stand up – stand up (comedian);
e) prepositions to noun: up, down – the ups and downs of life;
f) conjunction to noun: if, and, but – no ifs, ands or buts;
Semantics is the study of meaning that is used to understand human expressions through language. It is perhaps the hardest part of a grammar of a language to learn because the meanings in a language are indefinite/undetermined. Although a word can have more than one meaning there is always a primary or original meaning that it expresses. This original meaning is called denotation. On the other hand, any additional meanings that a word may have are called connotations.
1.1. Polysemy – having two or more meanings, i.e. referring to two or more items of extralinguistic reality, but at the same time sharing at least one element of meaning: without this link – the shared meaning – it would be a case of homonymy.
e.g. big with the meanings – spacious (town), high (tree), adult (boy), numerous (nation), important (boss) – the shared item of meaning is “great amount/number”
plain(as in simple) – plain(as in not decorated in any way)
Polysemy is a manifestation of the economizing tendency in the language, namely making use of existing forms for additional, newly needed meanings.
1.2. Synonymy – a synonym is a word or phrase which has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word or phrase. Three different types of synonymy can be distinguished:
a) near synonymy – expressions that are more or less similar but not identical in meaning
mist – fog; stream – brook; dive – plunge;
b) partial synonymy – words that meet the criterion of identity of meaning but which,for various reasons, fail to meet the criterion for absolute synonymy
car – vehicle; quick – fast – rapid;
c) absolute synonymy – words that match in all their shades of meaning and in all stylistic characteristics. Their meanings are identical and they are synonymous in all contexts
airman – pilot; car – automobile; kind – sort;
Motivation of the Word
The term motivation is used to denote the relationship existing between the phonemic or morphemic composition and structural pattern of the word on the one hand, and its meaning on the other. There are three main types of motivation: phonetical motivation,morphological motivation, and semantic motivation.
When there is a certain similarity between the sounds that make up the word and those referred to by the sense, the motivation is phonetical. Examples are:
bang, buzz, cuckoo, giggle, gurgle, hiss, purr,whistle,etc. Here the sounds of a word are imitative of sounds in nature because what is referred to is a sound or at least, produces a characteristic sound(cuckoo).
Within the English vocabulary there are different words, all sound imitative, meaning‘quick, foolish, indistinct talk’: babble, chatter, gabble, prattle.In this last group echoic creationscombine phonological and morphological motivation because they contain verbal suffixes -le and -er forming frequentative verbs.
The morphological motivation may be quite regular. Thus, the prefix ex – means ‘former’ when added to human nouns: ex-filmstar, ex-president, ex-wife.Alongside with these cases there is a more general use of ex-: in borrowed words it is unstressed and motivation is faded (expect,export,etc.).The derived word re-think is motivated in as much as its morphological structure suggests the idea of thinking again. Re-is one of the most common prefixes of the English language, it means ‘again’ and ‘back’ and is added to verbal stems or abstract deverbal noun stems, as in rebuild, reclaim, resell,resettlement. Here again these newer formations should be compared with older borrowings from Latin and French where re- is now unstressed, and the motivation faded. Compare re-cover ‘cover again’ and recover ‘get better’. In short: morphological motivation is especially obvious in newly coined words, or at least words created in the present century. Сf. detainee, manoeuvrable, prefabricated, racialist, self- propelling, vitaminise,etc. In older words, root words and morphemes motivation is established etymologically, if at all.
In deciding whether a word of long standing in the language is morphologically motivated according to present-day patterns or not, one should be very careful. Similarity in sound form does not always correspond to similarity in morphological pattern. Agential suffix -er is affixable to any verb, so that
V+-er means ‘one who V-s’ or ‘something that V-s’: writer, receiver, bomber, rocker, knocker. Yet, although the verb numb exists in English, number is not ‘one who numbs’ but is derived from OFr nombre borrowed into English and completely assimilated.
The third type of motivation is called semantic motivation. It is based on the co-existence of direct and figurative meanings of the same word within the same synchronous system. Mouth continues to denote a part of the human face, and at the same time it can metaphorically apply to any opening or outlet: the mouth of a river, of a cave, of a furnace. Jacket is a short coat and also a protective cover for a book, a phonograph record or an electric wire. Thus, eyewash ‘a lotion for the eyes’ or headache‘pain in the head’, or watchdog ‘a dog kept for watching property’ are all morphologically motivated. If, on the other hand, they are usedmetaphorically as ‘something said or done to deceive a person so that he thinks that what he sees is good,though in fact it is not’, ‘anything or anyone very annoying’and ‘a watchful human guardian’,
respectively, then the motivation is semantic.
A compound sentence refers to a sentence that is made of two or more independent clauses connected together by a coordinating conjunction. The coordinating conjunctions can be easily remembered if you think of the word FANBOYS.
For; And; Nor; But; Or; Yet; So
Examples of compound sentences :
Joe waited for the train, but the train was late.
I went out for a walk, and I took my umbrella with me
Bonnie couldn’t find her dress, so she didn’t go to the party.
He didn’t study, yet he was determined to pass the exam.
A complex sentence is made of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses attached to it. The independent clause can stand on its own as a sentence, while the dependent clause cannot. Examples of dependent clauses are:
because he couldn’t catch the bus.
while he waited at the train station.
since they were both short.
Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions such as: after, although, as, because, before, since, when, while, until, etc.
The dependent clauses can be attached to an independent clause to form a complex sentence:
John was late for the meeting because he couldn’t catch the bus.
He realized the train was late while he waited at the train station.
Tom and Mary couldn’t ride the rollercoaster since they were both short.
Conversely, the dependent clause can come first in the sentence, followed by the independent clause:
Because he couldn’t catch the bus, John was late for the meeting.
While he waited at the train station, he realized the train was late.
Since they were both short, Tom and Mary couldn’t ride the rollercoaster.
It should be noted that if we use the dependent clause first we should always put a comma at the end of it, before the independent clause.
The subject may consist of one word or several words, but it must always have a noun in it. This noun, which is the most important word in a sentence, is often qualified by an adjective or other modifiers which are called its attribute. The attribute of a noun may be an adjective, an article, a pronoun, a participle, an infinitive or a phrase.
The girl smiled. – the attribute is the definite article the;
A man with dark hair passed by us not so long ago. – the attribute is the indefinite article a;
Fresh food is the healthiest. – the attribute is the adjective fresh;
His voice was shaking. – the attribute is the possessive pronoun his;
Kennedy, President of America, was assassinated. – the attribute is the noun phrase President of America;
He himself said this. – the attribute is the reflexive pronoun himself;
A rolling stone gathers no moss. – the attribute is the participle rolling;
Birds of the same feather flock together. – the attribute is the prepositional phrase of the same feather;
His will to live pulled him through the difficult times. – the attribute here is the infinitive to live.
1.The Object is a part of the predicate denoting a person or thing that is acted upon by the subject. It always follows a transitive verb. Objects can be nouns, pronouns, phrases and clauses. We differentiate between two kinds of objects – direct and indirect.
1.1Direct object – usually the thing affected directly by the subject:
Tony kicked the ball.
Kevin kissed Jessica.
Sometimes direct objects are a single word and sometimes they are phrases and clauses:
Katie hates biting her fingernails. – a gerund phrase
Even more, Katie hates when her mom lectures her about hand care. – a subordinate clause acting as a direct object.
1.2. Indirect object – when someone or something gets the direct object that word is the indirect object.
Jim built his granddaughter a sandcastle.
Jim built what? – a sandcastle(direct object) Who got it? – his granddaughter(indirect object)
Tomas paid the mechanic 200 dollars.
200 dollars – direct object; the mechanic – indirect object
In the above example the indirect object stands before the direct object. Sometimes, however, their places can be swapped. In such cases the indirect object will occur in a prepositional phrase beginning with to or for.
I bought flowers for her. = I bought her flowers.
Tom gave the keys to Michael. = Tom gave Michael the keys.
A predicative expression is part of a clause predicate . The term is used more specifically to denote expressions that typically follow a linking verb , e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appear as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc. The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are predicative adjectives and predicative nominals. The main trait of all predicative expressions is that they serve to express a property that is assigned to a „subject“, whereby this subject is usually the clause subject, but at times it can be the clause object.
The most widely acknowledged predicative expressions are adjectives and nominals:
The idea was ridiculous. – predicative adjective
He seems nice. – predicative adjective
Bob is a postman. – predicative nominal
They are all happy campers. – predicative nominal
They elected him president. – predicative nominal over the object
The ride made me sick. – predicative adjective over the object
Most syntactic categories can be made predicative expressions as well:
The snake is in the bag. – predicative prepositional phrase
That is when it happens. – predicative clause expression
It is soon. – predicative adverb